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Hydrogen Refuelling Stations


The core tasks of the sub-project include the planning, procurement, construction, and operation of the hydrogen refuelling station test platform. The supply (1) of the test platform with hydrogen is carried out via an electrolyser, which is fed with green electricity from photovoltaics or wind turbines and, if necessary, supplemented by deliveries of green hydrogen. The actual filling station (2) consists of a compressor, buffer storage, gas cooler, and dispenser for delivering the hydrogen to a vehicle. Cars and light commercial vehicles with hydrogen fuel cells are used as recipients (3). The operating data generated during a refuelling process is collected, processed, and supplemented by external metadata and made available for the generation of models and digital twins.

This sub-project deals with the integration of the process control technology of the experimental platform as well as further sensors on a hardware platform installed on-site. Current concepts of the process industry (e.g., NAMUR Open Architecture) are used for this purpose. The data obtained will be digitally stored together with models (digital twin) so that they can be used to generate further information, update the models, and reparametrize the hardware. The sub-project is the link between the hardware of the experimental platform and the trustworthy provision of data at the interface to the QI-Cloud.

The overall goal of the sub-project is to optimise and validate the digital hydrogen refuelling station management with sensor technologies. For this purpose, sensor networks are to be intelligently designed with digitally supported evaluation strategies to comprehensively and efficiently monitor the physical and chemical parameters at and in plants and to reliably detect malfunctions. Concrete work steps are the application of sensor technology (gas sensors, manometers, and thermometers) and their digital integration into the refuelling station management system as well as validation in real operation. The measurement results obtained as well as the measurement uncertainties, histories, and procedures are processed in digital form, stored, and continuously included in the AI-based data evaluation. The use of digital calibration certificates (DCC) is being tested and serves the metrological traceability of the measured quantities in a digital QI.

We find "legal" measurements everywhere in everyday life: electricity or water meters in the household, the scales at the butcher's, or the speed camera notice from the police. The legislator has issued directives as well as laws and regulations to comply with defined protection goals (consumer protection, traffic safety, ...). In the case of explosion protection, the protection goal is always safety through the prevention of explosions.

In the pilot project "Reliable hydrogen refuelling stations", the information on the conformity assessment certificates in legal metrology and explosion protection is to be transferred into a digital, machine-readable format as an example. The focus here is on the European Directives on Measuring Instruments (MID, 2014/32/EU), Explosive Atmospheres (ATEX, 2014/34/EU), and Non-Automatic Weighing Instruments (NAWID, 2014/31/EU) and the German counterparts: the Measurement and Verification Act, the Measurement and Verification Ordinance as well as the Production Safety Act and the Industrial Safety Ordinance. Digitalisation is intended to make the processes involved more efficient and secure and to improve data availability and comprehensibility. Ultimately, the entire quality infrastructure is to be strengthened.

The "Living Lab Hydrogen Refuelling Station" is embedded in the Competence Centre H2Safety@BAM for hydrogen of the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung.